What is one issue that reflects the individualist versus collectivist outlook in your own times? How does it do this?
One issue that reflects individualism versus collectivism is my own sense of humor versus corporate America. My own sense of humor is something that reflects me as an individual, a personal quirk and characteristic. Corporate America is something that is viewed as a group, while it does have certain characteristics, it is valued as a whole and seen as a whole group. It is not viewed as separate parts. These two reflect individualism versus collectivism.
In what senses was the world a dangerous place in the 1960s and 1970s?
Homicides went through the roof for America. While European countries did have a rise, not as severe as America. The rise of homicide lasted for about three decades, with ups and downs of course, but New York and other American cities were known for their crime in these times. We have never recovered from these three decades of crime.
What were the important components of Germany’s Economic Miracle?
One of the most important components was the free-market capitalism which was introduced to Germany by Walter Eucken. He also put in strong regulations to prevent monopolies and cartels. He also put in the social welfare system. He introduced a central bank to make currency keep its value to off put the Depression. Erhard, a protege of Eucken, formalized with Allies forces to create a new currency, and reduced the amount available to the public. Large tax cuts were also introduced. All these components led to Germany booming almost over night.
In what ways did revenge figure into the strategies of the countries fighting in World War II?
Revenge played a big part in the strategies of the fighting. Many of the countries leaders justified the cruel attacks by saying they were “counterattacks” and feeding their blood- lust. Most countries want the last word in a battle or a war. So the cycle of “counterattacks” never ends. It became more than just the top leaders. Individual soldiers took matters in their own hands, dealing with enemy soldiers in their own ways and practically ignoring orders. The fights became more and more emotional and personal. Soldiers began to seek more revenge and would stop at nothing to get it. The burning of towns, “persuading” townspeople to take them places and house them all became commonplace. The emotional the battles got, the less strategic and beneficial they became. They now fought just to fight, some losing sight of the goal and just seeking the revenge right in front of them. A bomb for a bomb, an arm for an arm, all these became common in the battles of World War II.
Did World War II become more brutal as time went on? In what ways? Was the brutality on only one side?
Yes, I believe it did. It started with mass shootings of the Jewish people and other enemies of the state. But as time went on, the German soldiers were overworked. So the death camps and concentration camps were started. Other than the camps and shootings, bombing cities and regular war was found on both sides, each doing their part in that brutality.
From the readings and lectures, in what sense did World War II become more “global” during its first two or two-and-a-half years?
I believe World War II became more ” global ” in beginning. I do not believe anyone, and I mean anyone, thought this was going to be a small, insignificant war. I believe it became ” global ” in the very beginning.
Considering information in the readings and lectures, what problems from World War I helped contribute to the outbreak of World War II?
Many see World War II as just a continuation World War I. In fact, World Wars were expected before the rise of Adolf Hitler, and Japan invading China. Many of the precursor events that lead to the beginning of World War II started and / or existed during and ending of World War I. Italian fascism, Japanese militarism, and the take over of the Nazi party all lead to the outbreak of World War II. The immediate trigger for World War II was when Britain and France declared war on Germany after the invasion of Poland in 1939. Problems arose in Germany after the Treaty of Versailles was signed and their defeat was formalized. The demilitarization of Rhineland, prohibition of unification with Austria, the loss of German-speaking territories, limitations of Reichswehrs, the war guild (article 231) and last (but certainly not least) the war reparations that German had to pay. All the following factors lead to Germany already being on edge, and well, very prickly. Germany was ready to ‘ jump the gun ‘ and start war at the littlest thing. The rise of the Nazi party certainly did not help in the slightest either. The political instability, the tension, the fees, and simple just unresolved blood from World War I, lead to the outbreak of World War II faster than anything. With everyone still up in arms about World War I, the bloody battle of World War II was inevitable.